Get a better understanding of the environmental impact and operating costs of your current heating solution as compared to clean heating technologies.


This graph shows the carbon emissions produced by heating a standard 2,000 square-foot (SF) Massachusetts home using traditional as compared to clean technologies, assuming either today’s electric grid or a 100% renewable grid.

Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions for Heating a Standard 2,000 SF Home

  • 2020 Electricity Grid
  • 100% Clean Electricity Grid
    • An individual homeowner can achieve a high percent of clean electricity today by installing solar PV and/or by purchasing electricity sourced from renewables.
    • To achieve Massachusetts’ Net Zero by 2050 goal, the utilities in Massachusetts will increase their purchase of clean electricity in the coming decades.


The graphs represent the annual heating operating cost for a standard 2,000 SF home heated by fossil fuels as compared to clean energy technologies.

*Please note that prices and performance may vary by year, system, and home weatherization level. Homeowners who install air-source heat pumps or ground-source heat pumps, which also provide cooling, can also expect to save 30% – 50% on cooling costs as compared to a standard central air-conditioning system.


There are a number of programs now available to homeowners, making clean energy solutions affordable to install.

Average Cost After Incentives

Air-Source Heat Pumps

(whole home)

Ground-Source Heat Pumps


Automated Wood Heat


Solar Hot Water


Heat Pump Water Heater


Solar Electricity


*The average cost after incentives is an estimate based on a 2,000 square foot MA home and includes federal tax credits and/or Mass Save® rebates. Incentives for customers who currently have oil, propane, or electric resistance heat or hot water are higher than for customers who currently have natural gas heat or hot water. Actual costs may vary. See our incentives table to find which incentives you may be eligible for. 

**The estimated cost of solar PV is based off actual MA projects from 2019 – 2021 and includes federal and state tax incentives. The average system size in Massachusetts is 9 kW DC. Over the lifetime of the system, additional revenue can be generated through energy savings or other incentive programs such as the SMART program. Please visit MassCEC’s Solar Cost Comparison Tool for examples of residential solar installations from 2001 – 2018. 

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